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Garden Section : North America
 
Garden Subsection : Coniferous forest of North America (NAC1)
Cupressus arizonica Cupressaceae SW USA & Mexico. Mt canyons, 900-2400m. with annual rainfall of 400-600mm. Very drought tolerant.
Cupressus glabra Cupressaceae S USA: Mts of C Arizona. Distinguished from Arizona Cypress by shedding outer bark.
Pinus coulteri Pinaceae C & S. California,N.Baja California,Mexico.Has the heaviest cone of all pines in the world.American Indians once ate the large seeds,now squirrels & other wildlife consume the annual crop.
Pinus ponderosa Pinaceae

Garden Subsection : Deciduous forest of North America (NAM2)
Acer negundo Aceraceae E USA. Deciduous forests along lakes & streams. Common name from use of wood for boxes
Acer pensylvanicum Aceraceae NE USA & SE Canada. Moist deciduous forests. Used for cabinet making.
Acer saccharinum Aceraceae Midwest and NE USA. Riverbanks,lake edges & wet bottomlands. Valued timber tree
Acer saccharum Aceraceae Deciduous wet forests in Midwest & NE USA. The primary source of maple sugar & syrup.
Aralia spinosa Araliaceae E North America. Woodland & savannahs. Bark, roots & berries used medicinally by Indians & European settlers
Aronia arbutifolia Rosaceae E North America. Low woods, thickets & swamps. Ornamental cultivars known for their autumn foliage colour
Aronia melanocarpa Rosaceae E North America. Swamps & woodlands. Fruit is a source of pectin, used to thicken jams & as a culture medium in labs
Betula papyrifera Betulaceae N USA, Canada & Greenland. Wood used for veneer & plywood. Sap used medicinally. Indians used bark for baskets & canoes. Ornamental.
Carya ovata Juglandaceae E North America. Dry slopes in fertile, well drained soils of lowland valleys. Nuts edible.
Cercis canadensis Caesalpinaceae E North America. Understorey & forest edges. Ornamental, drought tolerant. Similar to the Med. Judas Tree
Coreopsis grandiflora Compositae C.& SE. USA
Echinacea purpurea Compositae N.America.Dry open woods & prairies.Has a general stimulatory effect on the immune system & is widely used in modern herbal treatments.
Fraxinus americana Oleaceae E North America.Deciduous tree .Rich woodland on well-drained soils.One of the most valuable of the NA. timbers..
Fraxinus latifolia Oleaceae W.USA.Mts. from Washington to California.
Fraxinus velutina Oleaceae SW. USA, N.Mexico.Grows in dry areas & desert canyons.
Gleditsia triacanthos Caesalpinaceae C.USA.- W.slopes of the Appalachians Mt.Ranges.Moist,fertile,soils near streams & lakes.
Juglans nigra Juglandaceae Dist:E.USA. Wood used for high quality furniture.Nuts are harvested commercially.
Lindera benzoin Lauraceae E.N.America.Damp woods.Young twigs,leaves & fruit are sometimes used to make tea.
Liquidambar styraciflua Hamamelidaceae E.& C. N.America.Broadleaf forests.Used for timber.Resinous gum used as a substitute for storax.Autumn foliage ornamental.
Liriodendron tulipifera Magnoliaceae E. N America. Deciduous forest tree.Used for manufacture of cabinets,veneer,furniture & paper pulp.Ornamental.Valuable nectar producer.
Lobelia cardinalis Campanulaceae N.America
Lobelia siphilitica Campanulaceae E. USA.
Lonicera sempervirens Caprifoliaceae
Magnolia grandiflora Magnoliaceae SE.USA. Coastal Plain,to 150m elev.Along streams & near swamps.Symbol of the Deep South.A valuable & extensively planted ornamental.Aromatic flowers.
Morus rubra Moraceae E.,C.& SE USA.Hardy.Moist,well drained soils in forest.Planted for its fruit & as an ornamental.
Myrica pennsylvanica Myricaceae E.N.America.Poor soils near the coast.Nitrogen fixing plant.Candles & soaps made from fruit wax.Tea made from leaves.
Pontederia cordata Pontederiaceae E North America and Caribbean
Pontederia lanceolata Pontederiaceae
Populus deltoides Salicaceae E. N.America .Grows in rich,moist soils,along riverbanks,woods.Bark contains salicine,component of aspirin & is used in anti-inflammatory treatment.
Quercus velutina Fagaceae E & C. USA,Canada.On moist,rich,well drained sites.Wood used for furniture,flooring & interior finish.
Robinia pseudoacacia Papilionaceae :Originally central Appalachian Mts.of E.USA. Expanded to many regions in the world, incl. Europe. Onamental.
Rosa multiflora Rosaceae Introduced in USA.Found on marginal sites ,open pastures.,streambanks & pond edges.
Sabal palmetto Palmae SE.USA.Wetlands,neutral to alkaline soils.The terminal bud is edible & tastes like a cabbage.Leaves used to make canes,scrub brushes& baskets.Popular ornamental.
Taxodium distichum Taxodiaceae SE.USA.Swamps,riverbanks & floodplain lakes. Wood resistant to decay & used for heavy construction, bridges & boat building. Ornamental.
Tilia americana Tiliaceae :N.& C. N.America.Mixed deciduous forests.Economically important timber tree .
Ulmus americana Ulmaceae E. N.America.Common on wet flats.Was prized as a street ornamental before the advent of Dutch Elm Disease.

Garden Subsection : Dry evergreen forest of the Rocky Mountains (NAX4)
Artemesia ludoviciana Compositae W. U.S.A., Mexico
Calocedrus decurrens Cupressaceae W North America. Montane forests, 300-2800m. Major source for pencil stock in the USA
Juniperus deppeana Cupressaceae SW. USA..Semi arid areas,montane island ecosystems,1220-1830m.elev.Associated with traditional NA. Indian culture;in construction of homes,use in food,medicines,teas & ceremonial incense.
Philadelphus microphyllus Saxifragaceae Dist:W.N.America .Dry, rocky places & in pinyon-juniper woodland,1200-3000m.elevation. The leaves are rich in saponins - when crushed & mixed with water,they produce an effective cleaning lather.

Garden Subsection : Grass prairies of North America (NAP7)
Echinacea angustifolia Compositae E.USA
Echinacea pallida Compositae E USA
Eupatorium maculatum Compositae E.- C. USA
Juniperus virginiana Cupressaceae E.USA.Varied habitats.The wood is commonly used to make fenceposts,poles and interior panelling.Ornamental.

Garden Subsection : Grove & park forest of California (NAO5)
Aesculus californica Hippocastanaceae Californian woodlands. Summer- deciduous tree. Indians placed toxic seeds in streams to stupefy fish for easy capture
Beloperone californica Acanthaceae California.
Berberis fremontii Berberidaceae California. Chapparal & woodland
Berberis haematocarpa Berberidaceae SW USA
Berberis nevinii Berberidaceae Coastal California. Riparian habitats.Endangered species.
Buddleja globosa Loganiaceae Woodlands in Argentina, Chile & Peru. Semi evergreen shrub, to 2000m.
Calliandra californica Mimosaceae California
Calycanthus floridus Calycanthaceae Woodlands of SE North America. Aromatic bark dried & used as a substitute for cinnamon.
Ceanothus arboreus Rhamnaceae Islands of California. One of 40 Ceanothus species native to California. Lilac coloured Spring- flowering ornamental
Cercis occidentalis Caesalpinaceae W. USA
Cercocarpus betuloides Rosaceae W North America. Dry foothills & mt.slopes. Wood used by Indians for tools & weapons. Bark used in traditional medicine & to produce purple dye
Cercocarpus ledifolius Rosaceae W USA: Rocky Mts. Scrub & forests, on rocky outcrops. Evergreen, drought tolerant.
Chitalpa tashkentensis Bignoniaceae Hybrid of Catalpa bignonioides (E.USA) and Chilopsis linearis (SW USA.), created in Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Ornamental
Cupressus goveniana Cupressaceae C & NW California. Restricted to coast ranges, 30-300m.Rare species
Cupressus macnabiana Cupressaceae California. Serpentine soils. Flat, sprayed branch arrangement unique among NA cypress
Cupressus macrocarpa Cupressaceae Wild in Monterey county, California. Widely planted in Hawai, Europe, S America, Aust & Africa for lumber, pulp production & as ornamental hedge tree.
Cupressus pygmaea Cupressaceae N California. Coastal coniferous forests( inc. Redwood). Below 500m.
Cupressus sargentii Cupressaceae California. Rocky outcrops, usually on serpentine soils, 200-1000m.
Eriogonum arborescens Polygonaceae Endemic to California.Chaparral & coastal sage scrub.
Galvezia speciosa Scrophulariaceae California
Garrya elliptica Garryaceae W USA, W Oregon -S.California
Heteromeles arbutifolia Rosaceae California.chaparral & foothill woodland.West Coast tribes gathered the berries for food & medicinal uses.Hollywood may have derived its name from the display of toyon on the surrounding foothills.Ornamental.
Isomeris arborea Capparidaceae C.California to Baja California.Bluffs & hillsides in coastal regions.Drought resistant flowering shrub.
Justicia californica Acanthaceae
Myrica californica Myricaceae SW.N.America -Washington to California.Ocean sand dunes & moist hillsides near the coast.Candles & soap made from the wax covering the fruit.
Oenothera speciosa Onagraceae USA. Ornamental, weedy
Philadelphus lewisii Saxifragaceae Dist:NW.USA & S.Canada.Native Americans used the strong,hard branches to make bows & arrows, combs & tobacco pipes.
Pinus radiata Pinaceae Native from California.Extremely rare in its native habitat.Cultivated for timber in Hawaii, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa,Chile, Spain, and the British Isles.
Pinus sabiniana Pinaceae Endemic to California.Oak woodlands,on exposed dry rocky slopes.Annual mean precipitation 530mm.Pine seeds were important in the diet of Californian Indians.
Pinus torreyana Pinaceae Endemic to California.Restricted to coastal Torrey Pines State Reserve in San Diego County & Santa Rosa Island.It is the rarest pine in N.America.Widely planted as an ornamental & has been evaluated as a commercial species in Kenya,Australia & New Zealan
Prunus lyonii Rosaceae Dist: Evergreen shrub or small tree found on Catalina Island, California.
Quercus chrysolepis Fagaceae Evergreen. Montame California & Mexico
Quercus dumosa Fagaceae Common in Californian chapparal
Quercus lobata Fagaceae Endemic to California.Rich soils of floodplains.Native Americans ground the acorns for meal.
Quercus turbinella Fagaceae Californian Chapparal. Evergreen
Rhus ovata Anacardiaceae California,Arizona & Mexico.Dry, rocky slopes below 800m.Oak woodland & chaparral.
Rhus trilobata Anacardiaceae Widespread in west & central N.America.Dry rocky slopes, along streams & canyons.Fruit used by Inative Americans for foods, medicines & for preparation of lemonade like beverages. Pliable young stems were woven into baskets.
Romneya coulteri Papaveraceae S.California.Chaparral, coastal sage scrub, in dry washes & canyons less than 1200m. The largest flower of all Californian natives.
Salvia apiana Labiatae Native to California.Dry slopes in coastal sage scrub,chaparral & yellow pine forests,below 1500m.Seeds were one component in pinole,a staple food of the Indians of the Pacific coast.
Salvia mellifera Labiatae Native to California.Dry slopes in coastal sage scrub,chaparral & desert scrub.Seeds were parched & ground into a meal used in baking & crushed leaves & stems were used as a mint-flavored condiment.
Salvia microphylla Labiatae
Salvia munzii Labiatae Dist:Native to California.
Sequoia sempervirens Taxodiaceae Coastal N.California & SW.Oregon.One of the world"s longest living (more than 2200 years) & tallest trees (to 110m.)
Umbellularia californica Lauraceae Pacific coast of N.America - SW Oregon to S.California.Moist soils in mt.canyons & valleys.When crushed the leaves are pungently aromatic.
Zauschneria californica Onagraceae California.Valleys & foothills.Late summer flowering makes it of horticultural interest.

Garden Subsection : Mixed forest(broad-leaved & coniferous)of Southeas (NAE3)
Alnus rubra Betulaceae Alaska to California. Moist,rich soiled woodland. 0- 600m. Indians used bark in traditional medicine.
Callicarpa americana Verbenaceae Woodlands in SE USA. Ornamental cut flower
Calycanthus fertilis Calycanthaceae SE.USA
Calycanthus floridus Calycanthaceae Woodlands of SE North America. Aromatic bark is dried & used as a substitute for cinnamon.
Campsis radicans Bignoniaceae SE North America. Woods & thickets. Ornamental deciduous climber.
Catalpa bignoniodes Bignoniaceae S USA. Rich moist soils by rivers & streams. Deciduous. Flowers sweet scented. Ornamental, with some medicinal uses.
Catalpa speciosa Bignoniaceae C North America, naturalized in SE USA. Moist valley soils by streams.Valuable timber tree.
Celtis reticulata Ulmaceae S North America . Deciduous. Dry limy hillsides & canyon slopes. Sweet, edible fruits were important food for Indian tribes
Cercidium floridum Caesalpinaceae SW North America. Deserts & desert grasslands. Retamoid: leaves are mostly absent, photosynthesis is performed by the blue-green branches
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Cupressaceae W USA: coastal SW Oregon & NW California. Moist forests,0-1500m. Used for timber. Ornamental tree in Europe.
Chamaecyparis thyoides Cupressaceae E.USA. Coastal swamp forests. Common name reflects range on the Atlantic coastal plain & its light coloured wood. Ornamental, with many cultivars.
Cornus florida Cornaceae E & C USA. Deciduous woodland. Famous flowering ornamental with many varieties .
Diospyros virginiana Ebenaceae E.& SE.USA.Deciduous tree of woodlands,streams,swamp margins.A valuable wood,used for turnery, wooden ware.Hardy ornamental with autumn leaf colour display.
Eryngium yuccifolium Umbelliferae USA
Erythrina herbacea Papilionaceae Mexico
Fraxinus profunda Oleaceae Dist:E.USA.Swamps & inundated river bottoms.
Fraxinus uhdei Oleaceae C.America.Grows in dry areas.
Hibiscus coccineus Malvaceae
Hibiscus moscheutos Malvaceae S N.America.Saline marshes & lake shores.Ornamental, with many developed cultivars.
Ilex verticillata Aquifoliaceae
Myrica cerifera Myricaceae SE. N.America.Thickets on sandy soil ,near swamps & marshes.Leaves & berries used as a food flavouring.Is a popular herbal remedy.
Myrica gale Myricaceae
Physostegia virginiana Labiatae E North America. Ornamental
Rhus aromatica Anacardiaceae Forested margins of the central grasslands of N.America.Open,rocky woodlands & valleys.Ornamental.
Rhus copallina Anacardiaceae E.,SE & C. N.America.0pen uplands,valleys ,forest edges,grassland clearings.Planted as an ornamental for its shiny leaves & showy fruit.

Garden Subsection : Mountainous flora of Central America (NAF8)
Acacia cavenia Mimosaceae S. America
Arbutus glandulosa Ericaceae
Arbutus xalapensis Ericaceae SW USA to Mexico. Drier oak forests, to 3000m.
Caldcluvia paniculata Cunoniaceae S South America. Evergreen tree with fragrant flowers.
Cestrum parqui Solanaceae Chile
Cupressus nevadensis Cupressaceae California
Maytenus boaria Celastraceae
Salvia grandiflora Labiatae Mexico
Sambucus caerulea Caprifoliaceae W.N.America -British Columbia to California.Woodland,stream banks,field margins.Leaves,bark,root used medicinally.Tea made from dried flowers.
Tecoma sambucifolia Bignoniaceae

Garden Subsection : North America Ornamental Display (NAOR)
Anemopsis californica Saururaceae California. Valley grassland & desert oases. Root used by Indians as medicine
Argemone "Purity" Papaveraceae
Betula populifolia Betulaceae E North America
Mirabilis multiflora Nyctaginaceae S USA
Penstemon alpinus Scrophulariaceae
Penstemon barbatus Scrophulariaceae SW.USA,N.Mexico
Penstemon digitalis Scrophulariaceae
Penstemon gloxiniodes Scrophulariaceae
Pestemon ophianthus Scrophulariaceae W USA, Arizona, to 2000m
Rhus choriophylla Anacardiaceae
Rudbeckia hirta Compositae
Rudbeckia subtomentosa Compositae
Solidago flexicaulis Compositae E .N.America
Solidago ohioensis Compositae
Solidago patula Compositae
Solidago speciosa Compositae C & E.USA
Solidago ulmifolia Compositae E & C. N.America

Garden Subsection : North American Water Garden (NAW9)
Iris fulva Iridaceae N America
Vallisneria gigantea Hydrocharitaceae New Guinea & Philippines
Vallisneria spiralis Hydrocharitaceae Aquatic plant originating probably in the Mediterranean area

Garden Subsection : Succulent desert flora of North America (NAD6)
Acacia farnesiana Mimosaceae Probably native to Tropical America, naturalized & cultivated worldwide. Essential flower oil used extensively in European perfumery.
Arbutus texana Ericaceae Texas, New Mexico, Mexico & Guatemala. Wooded canyons & dry creekbeds in desert mts. Astringent leaves used medicinally.Ornamental.
Chilopsis linearis Bignoniaceae SW USA & N Mexico. Riverbanks & low desert areas. Indians used wood for bows & baskets. Ornamental.
Dasylirion wheeleri Agavaceae Deserts of SW North America: Ariz.to Texas & Mexico. Indians prepared food from plant crown. Pith from the trunk was used to make an alcoholic drink.
Erythrina flabelliformia Papilionaceae N America
Hesperaloe parviflora Liliaceae :Native to Texas.Ornamental perennial.
Prosopis juliflora Mimosaceae SW USA & Mexico. Long fruit pods edible & nutritous. A source of excellent honey.
Simmondsia chinensis Buxaceae
Sophora secundiflora Papilionaceae Dist:SW.USA,New Mexico,Texas & Mexico. Limestone soils .Ornamental tree.