|Garden Subsection : Alpine bushy flora and meadow flora (ESR4)
Albizzia julibrissin Mimosaceae NE.Turkey,N.Iran,Himalaya & China.0-2100m. Dominates S.Caspian Coastal Plain, in warm,moist forest. Common name derived from the silk-like stamens.
Artemisia absinthium Compositae Eurasia, N. Africa
Betula pendula Betulaceae C.Europe to E.Turkey. Open woodlands & heath. Leaves,inner bark & sap used in medicine.
Prunella grandiflora Labiatae Europe except Portugal. Perennial. Grassland usually in calcareous soils. Ornamental.
Zelkowa carpinifolia Ulmaceae Caucasus. One of 5 deciduous species in this genus, mainly found in China and Japan
Garden Subsection : Deciduous forest of Central Europe (EST3)
Acer campestre Aceraceae C.Europe to NW.Africa and the Caucasus.The commonest European maple.Deciduous forests & shrub thickets,300-1800m.
Acer monspessulanum Aceraceae S.& C.Europe, NW.Africa & SW.Anatolia.Forests of cedars, junipers & oaks.
Alnus glutinosa Betulaceae Europe to Caucasus, Siberia & N Africa. Moist woods. Cultivated for timber. Bark & leaves used in herbal medicine.
Carpinus betulus Corylaceae C.& SE.Europe,Caucasus,N.Anatolia & N.Iran.Deciduous forests with beech,oak & chestnut trees.
Carpinus caucasica Betulaceae Europe to Asia Minor
Cornus sanguinea Cornaceae Europe & W.Anatolia.Mixed woods & scrub.Grey-blue dye derived from fruits used in leather dyeing.Seed oil used for soaps & lighting fuel.
Crepis rubra Compositae S Europe: S Italy to the Balkans
Dipsacus laciniatus Dipsacaceae Europe & W Asia. Very rare and random in Israel
Euonymus europaeus Celastraceae Europe to Anatolia & Caucasus. Woodland & scrub, usually on limestone soils. Yellow hard wood was used in Europe for spindles. Extracted oil used in soap making.
Forsythia europaea Oleaceae SE.Europe (Albania,Kosovo).In winter flower display on bare branches.
Platanus orientalis Platanaceae E.Europe to W.Asia.Reaches its S.range in Israel.Large tree of wet places.Used for furniture making.
Prunus avium Rosaceae Europe to Turkey, Caucasus & W Siberia. Progenitor of many cultivated sweet cherries.
Quercus petraea Fagaceae Europe to Turkey, Caucasus & N Iran. Woods, 300-1300m. Used in furniture making. Bark rich in tannins & used in tanning & in herbal medicine.
Quercus robur Fagaceae Mixed forests in Britain,Ireland,W.Europe & Turkey. Grows on well drained,fertile soils. Used for furniture & wine cask making.
Rhamnus cathartica Rhamnaceae C.Europe,Balkans,Anatolia & N.Africa. A purgative made from the berries was used in the past.
Rhamnus dahuricus Rhamnaceae Siberia to N China. Grows well on poor or eroded soil.
Salvia forskaohlei Labiatae SE Europe & W Asia
Sambucus nigra Caprifoliaceae Europe, NW Africa & SW Asia. Very rare in Israel. Forests, often near streams. Dried flowers, fruits & bark are used in medicine.
Sorbus domestica Rosaceae C&S Europe to N Africa & Turkey. Cultivated for ages for its fruit, which are pressed for juice.
Tilia cordata Tiliaceae Woodlands of Europe.
Tilia platyphyllos Tiliaceae Europe to SW Asia European woodlands. Inner bark fibres used in basketry & ropemaking. Dried flowers used as a medicinal tea.
Viburnum lantana Caprifoliaceae Europe to Turkey. Forest margins & scrub on gravelly, limestone soil.
Viburnum opulus Caprifoliaceae Europe to N.Africa. Moist damp woods. Fruit used for wine & spirit making. Bark used in herbal remedies. Cultivated for its profuse flowering.
Viburnum schensianum Caprifoliaceae NW and C China
Garden Subsection : East European mixed forest(broad-leaved & conifero (ESB1)
Syringa vulgaris Oleaceae SE.Europe. Thickets,rocky places. Ornamental & widely naturalized.
Garden Subsection : European Ornamental Display (ESOR)
Acer pseudoplatanus Aceraceae S.& C.Europe to Caucasus.Used for furniture.Common name refers also to the unrelated fig which also has large palmate leaves.
Aesculus hippocastanum Hippocastanaceae Balkan to Himalaya.Ornamental grown for winter buds,large leaves & striking flowers.Shiny brown seeds are the conkers prized by children.
Aesculus x carnea Hippocastanaceae A cultivated hybrid of two Horsechestnuts from Europe & SE North America
Betula pubescens Betulaceae C.Europe to W.Siberia,reaching northern limit of trees range.Used for furniture.Bark tar used for preserving leather & wood.
Euphorbia amygdaloides Euphorbiaceae Europe,SW. Asia.
Fagus sylvatica Fagaceae Europe.Genus name derived from Greek, meaning "to eat". During hunger nuts were grounded into flour. Valuable source of timber & a traditional medicine ingredient.
Genista tinctoria Papilionaceae Europe to Turkey & Ukraine. Good quality yellow dye derived from flowers & young shoots.
Hypericum perforatum Guttiferae Europe to China & N Africa. Used in herbal medicine, recently found usefull in treatment of nervous disorders.
Iris germanica Iridaceae The most common cultivated Iris. Originating in S Europe. Widely naturalized.
Juniperus horizontalis Cupresaceae
Laburnum anagyroides Papilionaceae C.& S.Europe.Woodland & scrub,on limestone.Wood used for musical instruments & furniture.Often used as rootstock for other legumes.
Lychnis flos-cuculi Caryophyllaceae Europe, Caucasus & Siberia. Damp woodland, meadows & marshes.
Malus sylvestris Rosaceae C.Europe.Fruit edible and also a source of pectin,used as thickener in jams & as a culture medium in laboratories.
Podocarpus macrophyllus Podocarpaceae China,Japan
Polemonium caeruleum Polemoniaceae N&C Europe to N Asia. Perennial used in herbal medicine for treatment of headaches, fever & epilepsy.
Polemonium caucasicum Polemoniaceae
Pyrus communis Rosaceae
Quercus castaneifolia Fagaceae N Iran & S Caucasus. Mixed deciduous forests. Closely related species in Algeria, Turkey & Japan.
Quercus pontica Fagaceae Armenia & Caucasus. Open woodland with rhododendrons & cherry laurel. Fertile, acidic soils.
Salix alba Salicaceae Eurosiberian to SW. Asia, incl.N.Israel . Riverbank & streams. Wood used in cellulose & paper industry. Bark used for tannins & salicin.
Spiraea chamaedryfolia Rosaceae E Alps, Carpathians, Balkans to Siberia & C Asia.
Garden Subsection : European Water Garden (ESW6)
Aponogeton distachys Aponogetonaceae South Africa
Carex pendula Cyperaceae Europe
Cyperus alternifolius Cyperaceae Madagascar, garden plant and escaped throughout the world
Cyperus haspan Cyperaceae Indian species from which paper was manufectured as well. Hardy
Euryale ferox Nymphaeaceae N India to China & Japan. Cultivated in ancient times for its edible rhizomes and seed
Garden Subsection : Forests & heather undergrowth of the Atlantic coas (ESA2)
Eupatorium cannabinum Compositae Common in wet places throughout Europe,reaches its southern range in Israel. Ornamental plant,also used in homeopathy.
Juniperus communis Cupressaceae Spain to Japan inc. UK. Used culinary & medicinally.
Rosa glauca Rosaceae Mts of C&S Europe from the Pyrenees to Yugoslavia.
Sorbus anglica Rosaceae Limestone soils in England & Ireland.
Sorbus aria Rosaceae Mt.chalky areas in Europe
Sorbus aucuparia Rosaceae Europe to Turkey.Woods and scrubs on mt.slopes.Used in herbal medicine.
Ulex parviflorus Papilionaceae W.Europe (Portugal). Pastures & heaths, primarily along the coast.
Geranium sanguineum Geraniaceae Europe to N Turkey
Ulex europaeus Papilionaceae W Europe, common in Scotland
Garden Subsection : Temperate forests of the Black Sea & the Caspian S (ESP5)
Acer cappadocium Aceraceae Turkey & the Caucasus to Himalayas. Damp mixed forests 0 - 1700m.
Corylus colurna Corylaceae SE.Europe to W.Asia.Shady mixed forests. Used in furniture. Occasionally cultivated for its edible seed & oil. Hybridized with Common Hazel for superior fruiting cultivars.
Fraxinus oxycarpa Oleaceae S.Europe,N.Africa
Fraxinus oxyphylla Oleaceae S.Europe,N.Africa
Gleditsia caspica Caesalpiniaceae N.Iran & Trans-Caucasus. 0-500m. Forests in fertile,alluvial soils & in marshy places,though can tolerate drought. Wood used in carpentry. Sweetish seedpods used for feeding cattle.
Humulus lupulus Cannabaceae N.temperate regions.Cultivated, seed heads have medicinal qualities & also used as flavoring & preservative in beer
Hypericum calycinum Hypericaceae SE Europe & Turkey. Deciduous forests, by springs & streams. Ornamental ground cover.
Ligustrum vulgare Oleaceae Europe,N.Africa to W.Asia.Forest margins.Ornamental hedge shrub.Seeds dispersed by birds that feed on fruits.
Ostrya carpinifolia Corylaceae SE France to Turkey. Decidous forests, scrubs & open pine forests. Dry, stony limestone hills 50-1700m. Hard wood used for general carpentry.
Philadelphus caucasicus Saxifragaceae S Europe to Caucasus
Pinus sylvestris Pinaceae Commonest pine in the world.Ranges from Scotland,entire Europe to N.Asia.Used medicinally.
Pterocarya fraxinifolia Juglandaceae Caucasus to Iran. Mountain enclaves of humid forest with Date Plum. Named for its double-winged Ash-like fruit.
Punica granatum Punicaceae Dist:Steppes from C.Asia to the Caucasus.Ancient crop around the Med.Basin
Pyracantha coccinea Rosaceae S. Europe to W.Asia
Quercus freinetto Fagaceae SE Europe, often in heavy soils
Quercus infectoria Fagaceae NW Turkey, Cyprus & Greece
Quercus macranthera Fagaceae Trans-Caucasus . Dry,stony,often steep southern slopes. 1000-2650m. Resistant to drought & low temp.
Sambucus ebulus Caprifoliaceae Vigorous suckering perennial from S Europe through N Africa to Iran. Random and very rare in Israel
Staphylea colchica Staphyleaceae W.Asia to SW.Caucasus.Forests to 1200m.Very ornamental.
Taxus baccata Taxaceae Europe & Northern Africa
Ulmus glabra Ulmaceae European woodlands. Wet wood used for boats, piers & furniture making. Inner bark used for mats & ropes.